Sampling of Research

American Psychological Association. (2009, December 28). Effects of poverty, hunger, and homelessness on children and youth.

Baglivio, M. T. (2018). On cumulative childhood traumatic exposure and violence/aggression: The implications of adverse childhood experiences (ACE). The Cambridge handbook of violent behavior and aggression2, 467-487.

Baglivio, M. T., & Epps, N. (2016). The interrelatedness of adverse childhood experiences among high-risk juvenile offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice14(3), 179-198.

Baglivio, M. T., Epps, N., Swartz, K., Huq, M. S., Sheer, A., & Hardt, N. S. (2014). The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in the lives of juvenile offenders. Journal of juvenile justice3(2).

Bandura, A., Freeman, W. H., & Lightsey, R. (1999). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control.

Bonk, Ivy T. “Professional Development for Elementary Educators: Creating a Trauma-Informed Classroom.” Regent University, ProQuest, 2016, pp. 1–169.

Bonk, Ivy T., (2020), Grounded Learning: Education’s Recovery Plan, Every Child Whole Press.

Bullock, H. E., Fraser Wyche, K., & Williams, W. R. (2001). Media images of the poor. Journal of Social Issues57(2), 229-246.

Cohen, J. (1986). Learning disabilities and psychological development in childhood and adolescence. Annals of Dyslexia, 36(1), 287–300.

D’Andrea, W., Ford, J., Stolbach, B., Spinazzola, J., & van der Kolk, B. A. (2012). Understanding interpersonal trauma in children: why we need a developmentally appropriate trauma diagnosis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry82(2), 187.

DeGruy, J. A. (2009). Post-Slavery Syndrome. Mass Trauma and Emotional Healing around the World: Rituals and Practices for Resilience and Meaning-Making [2 volumes], 227.

Duncan, G. J., Smeeding, T., & Le Menestrel, S. (2020). Poverty, work, and welfare: Cutting the Gordian knot.

Duncan, G. J., Magnuson, K., & Votruba-Drzal, E. (2014). Boosting family income to promote child development. The Future of Children, 99-120.

Evans, G. W. (2016). Childhood poverty and adult psychological well-being. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(52), 14949-14952.

Felski, R. (2000). Nothing to declare: Identity, shame, and the lower middle class. pmla115(1), 33-45.

Fullan, M. (2020). Leading in a culture of change. Jossey-Bass.

Gerdes, K. E., & Stromwall, L. K. (2008). Conation: A missing link in the strengths perspective. Social Work53(3), 233-242.

Griffin, G., McClelland, G., Holzberg, M., Stolbach, B., Maj, N., & Kisiel, C. (2011). Addressing the impact of trauma before diagnosing mental illness in child welfare. Child Welfare90(6), 69.

Grindad, T., Schifter, L, Schwartz, G., Hehir, T. (2020, January 15). Income differences alone cannot explain the overrepresentation of students of color in special education. Voices in Education.

Hambrick, E.P., Brawner, T.W., Perry, B.D., Brandt, K., Hofmeister, C., & Collins, J.O. (2019). Beyond the ACE score: Examining relationships between timing of developmental adversity, relational health and developmental outcomes in children.  Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, (33), 238–247.

Heath, D. (2020). Upstream: The quest to solve problems before they happen. Simon and Schuster.

Heider, A. (2021, January 12). The Basic Facts About Children in Poverty. Center for American Progress.

Hovey, K. A., Zolkoski, S. M., & Bullock, L. M. (2017). Mental Health and the Juvenile Justice System: Issues Related to Treatment and Rehabilitation. World Journal of Education, 7(3), 1.

Hudson, N. (2016). The Trauma of Poverty as Social Identity. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 21(2), 111–123.

Isenberg, N. (2017). White trash: The 400-year untold history of class in America. Penguin.

Ladd, H. F. (2012). Education and poverty: Confronting the evidence. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 31(2), 203-227.

Lencioni, P. M. (2012). The advantage: Why organizational health trumps everything else in business. John Wiley & Sons.

Maté, G. (2011). Scattered minds: The origins and healing of attention deficit disorder. Vintage Canada.

McCrea, K. T., Richards, M., Quimby, D., Scott, D., Davis, L., Hart, S., … & Hopson, S. (2019). Understanding violence and developing resilience with African American youth in high-poverty, high-crime communities. Children and Youth Services Review, 99, 296-307.

National Child Traumatic Stress Network. (2018, March 23). Childhood Trauma Effects. Retrieved November 28, 2021, from

National Conference of State Legislators. (n.d.). Mental Health Needs of Juvenile Offenders. Retrieved December 10, 2021, from

Ponton, M. K., Schuette, C. T., & Confessore, G. J. (2009). An agentic perspective of self-directed learning as applied to children. International Journal of Self-Directed Learning6(1), 46-58.

Price, M., Higa-McMillan, C., Kim, S., & Frueh, B. C. (2013). Trauma experienced in children and adolescents: An assessment of the effects of trauma type and role of interpersonal proximity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 27(7), 652–660.

Shonk, S.M., & Cicchetti, D. (2001). Maltreatment, competency deficits, and risk for academic and behavioral maladjustment. Developmental psychology, 37(1), 3.

Southern Coalition for Social Justice. (2014, April 8). Mass incarceration of juveniles: Does putting children in jail solve anything? Retrieved from

Teicher, M.H., & Samson, J.A. (2016). Annual Research Review: Enduring neurobiological effects of childhood abuse and neglect. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57, 241–266.

Van der Kolk, B. (2016). Commentary: The devastating effects of ignoring child maltreatment in psychiatry – a commentary on Teicher and Samson 2016. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 57(3), 267-270.

Van der Kolk, B. A. (2005). Developmental. Psychiatric annals35(5), 401.

VanderPyl, Taryn. “Incarcerated DisCrit: The Intersection of Disproportionality in Race, Disability, and Juvenile Justice.” Justice Policy Journal, vol. 15, no. 1, 2018, pp. 1–19. Spring.

Wildeman, C., & Wang, E. A. (2017). Mass incarceration, public health, and widening inequality in the USA. The Lancet, 389(10077), 1464–1474.

Winfrey, O., & Perry, B. (2021). What happened to you?: Conversations on trauma, resilience, and healing. Boxtree.

Wunder, T. A. (2019). Fighting childhood poverty: How a universal child allowance would impact the US population. Journal of Economic Issues, 53(2), 537-544.

Yohros, A. (2022). Examining the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and juvenile recidivism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 15248380211073846.